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Past form of verb -to- Had+ past participle form of verb, vi. Direct: He asked, “Are they writing the paper?”. (Indirect), He said to me, “ She had done it.” (Direct), He said to me, “She had been studying for three hours.” (Direct), He told me that she had been studying for three hours. (Indirect), He said, “Son, the sun rises in the East, not the west.” (Direct), Addressing me as son he said that the sun rises in the east, not the west. Direct: Robert Langdon said, “My mother gave me the Mickey watch.”. Has or Have+ past participle form of verb-to- Had+ past participle form of verb, iv. Only the persons change. He said to me, “Please. 4. Direct: Mother said, “Listen to your elders.”. Direct: I said the man, “Where is the hotel?”. ‍, i. We explained that it is very difficult to find our house. b. Modal verbs like could, should, need, must, might, used to do not change in reported speech. There are two main ways of reporting the words of a speaker. (Indirect), He said to me, “She has gone to school.” (Direct), He told me that she had gone to school. Direct: Barbara asked, “Will you be my partner in the coming Summer Ball?”. Direct: John said, “I will be doing my CELTA next year.”, Indirect: John said that he would be doing his CELTA next year. In the above example, told is a reporting verb and liked is a reported verb. Indirect: David said that I need to repair the car. requested, order, advised, forbade, suggested) replace the verbs (e.g. Looking for an easy way to Learning of English Grammar Exercises for Class 10 ICSE. যখন reporting verb, past tense-এ থাকে তখন reported speech-এর verb past tense-এর চার প্রকারের এক বা অন্য প্রকারে পরিবর্তিত হয়।, When reporting verb is in the past tense the reported speech’s verb is changed to one or the other of the four forms of past tense. The following points should be observed about these two modes of narration. Indirect: Brad asked who would go with him. Present Continuous Tense is changed into Past Continuous Tense, i.e. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules. Present Perfect tense is changed into Past Perfect Tense, i.e. (Cat is the subject and ate is the active verb. Change from Direct Narration to Indirect Narration When a direct narration is changed into indirect narration, then there are three major changes that take place. Here is replaced by there in Reported Speech. Reporting speech :The boy says, _ b. Direct: Alex said, “I had stopped to visit you.”. Present Perfect tense, Past Perfect Tense- এ পরিবর্তিত হয়। অর্থাৎ-, Has বা Have+ verb-এর past participle form- থেকে - Had+ verb-এর past participle form. You have to learn basic English Grammer topics like Tenses Verbs, Nouns, etc… The verb that introduces the Reported speech is called Reporting Verb. If the reporting verb is in ‘ present ‘ or ‘ future tense ‘, there shall be no change in the tense of the reported speech changes according to the rules given below. Indirect: Mother asked me how the chicken was. The indirect object is the person spoken to. In the first sentence, I am conveying the activities of David in his (D) own words without changing it; it is called direct speech or we can say reporting speech. It is always written within inverted commas. (i)In indirect narration, the reporting verb ‘say’ is changed into ask, tell, order, command, beg, urge, remind, warn, etc. Narration. Shall and will are changed into “would”; can is changed into “could” and may is changed into “might”. Direct: Nicolas said, “I have made a donut.”. Direct: Jenny said, “Marlow was leaving Belgium.”. Rule : 2. said, told) of reporting verb. Indirect: The officer ordered to fall back. a. 1. I am going to focus on verb person and tense (in the indicative mood - to state facts). Past Perfect Tense এবং Past Perfect Continuous Tense একই থাকে।. Indirect: Edward said that he liked the book. Indirect Speech. Narration Rules for Assertive Sentences : — Keep the following rules in mind to change the Assertive sentences from Direct to indirect: Rule : 1. Indirect: Tom asked whether I wanted to sit there. Indirect: The teacher announced that the dates had been decided. He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one. Indirect: Mother said that Bob was taking a nap. There are basically two ways in which a speaker can convey the intended message/idea to the listener. Indirect: she said that she would not be the victim. In the page about reported speech, we talked about how to change direct speech ("I love coffee") into reported speech (Seonaid said that she loved coffee), using the verbs 'say', 'tell' and 'ask'. Subject did the verb) Passive voice. The reporting verb is changed into ordered, commanded, requested. Direct: Mary said, “I used to love dancing.”. If we consider these two sentences, we might notice that both of them convey the same message, but there is a difference if we look closely. viii. Reported Speech: The act of reporting the words of a speaker is called narration. (Indirect), He said to me, “She will go to school.” (Direct), He told me that she would go to school. Indirect speech differs from the direct speech’s time and place. Reporting Verb The part which is outside the inverted commas is called Reporting Verb. Indirect: Smith said that his parents would be there at 9am. Verbs of Reported speech (if the reporting verb is in past tense) (list 2) Direct speech → Indirect speech Am / is / are → was / were Was / were → had been Has / have → had Had → had had Shall / will → would Can → could May → might Must, should → must, should Verb1 → verb2 Verb2 → had + … The word ‘ask’ can be used in all general imperative sentences where it is not clear whether the sentence is an order, request, etc. Indirect: Maria said that she had been dialing my number and I had called. Indirect: Clare exclaimed with joy that Barcelona had won the match. Indirect: Robert Langdon said that his mother had given the Mickey watch to him. according to a sense of the sentence. 2. So the demonstrative (this, that etc.) Example – Our food was eaten by the cat (Our food is the subject and was eaten is the passive verb.)

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